The Sultanate of Oman with a total area of 309,500 square kilometres, is the second largest country in the Arabian Peninsula. Oman occupies the eastern corner of the Arabian Peninsula, bordered by the United Arab Emirates (UAE) to the northwest, Saudi Arabia to the west and Yemen to the southwest. At its northernmost point, it's just over 50 km south of Iran across the Strait of Hormuz. Pakistan and India are, respectively, 500 km and 1000 km across the Arabian Sea to the east. The Musandam Peninsula forms the country's northern tip, which is separated from the rest of the country by the United Arab Emirates' eastern coast and includes the only coast Oman has on the Persian Gulf. The Omani enclave of Madha is entirely surrounded by the UAE and lies halfway between the Musandam Peninsula and the rest of Oman. Oman has a magnificent coastline stretching 1,700 kilometres from the Straits of Hormuz in the north, to the borders of the Republic of Yemen in the south, overlooking the Arabian Gulf, the Gulf of Oman and the Arabian Sea in the east.
Oman's diverse geography includes rugged coasts, placid beaches, craggy mountains, salt flats, oasis and deserts. The northern coastal strip along the Gulf of Oman is known as the Batinah coast, a sand and gravel plain separated from the rest of the country by the Hajar Mountains. The highest peak is Jebel Akhdar ('Green Mountain') at 2980 m (9775 ft). Oman also has two large areas of salt flats, one in the central west and another opposite Massirah Island, off the eastern coast and just south of the Wahiba Sands desert area.
Oman has one of the world's most rigorous green governments and a fascinating range of animals thrives in the protected areas. Sanctuaries have been set aside for rare Arabian oryx, giant sea turtles which come to Oman to breed, the Arabian tahr, a wild goat which nearly became extinct but is now flourishing, Arabian wolf and leopard, striped hyena and the sooty falcon.
His Majesty Sultan Qaboos bin Said, the ruler of Sultanate of Oman has devoted much attention to the country's plant life as well. Coastal areas are preserved and there are National Protected Areas scattered around the country.
Oman’s varied geography means - Oman has a wide variety of climatic conditions. Muscat, the capital city of Sultanate of Oman, is hot and humid from mid-March until October and pleasant from October to March. In the southern Salalah area, humid weather with temperatures approaching 30°C is common even in December. The Salalah area gets drenched by monsoon rains from June to September.